The Four Physical Characteristics of Weightlifting (And How to Develop Them)
Weightlifting requires a unique combination of multiple different physical characteristics. Which is probably why it has been described as one of the most athletic sports on the planet. It’s probably also for this reason that in studies weightlifters have performed exceptional well at a huge variety of other olympic sports.
So with that in mind, what are these four physical characteristics?
1) Body awareness
Knowing where your body is in space and time (okay maybe just the first one) isn’t something we often think about as a skill, but its a hugely important part of almost all sports and activities. Having a good understanding of how long your arms and legs are is important for coordination, whilst understanding where your centre of mass lies is crucial for balance.
Think of it another way. You know how when kids have a growth spurt they’re constantly bumping into things? Well that’s because their body awareness is basically reset every single time they grow. Its only after a few weeks of movement that they get used to their new proportions and centre of balance.
Especially for new and beginning lifters bodyweight based exercises like lunges, squats, press ups, one legged RDL’s, planks, bird dogs and dead bugs can be immensely helpful in building a sense of body awareness. Plus to be honest they never hurt the more experienced lifter either.
(Coaches often refer to weightlifting as 'Barbell Gymnastics.')
You can have all the body awareness in the world, but if you’re stiff as a brick then you’ll still be a pretty atrocious weightlifter. Movements like the snatch require large range of motion through the hips, ankles, shoulders and mid to upper back.
Luckily building mobility is pretty easy, you just need to commit to ten to fifteen minutes every day to stretch all the offending muscle groups and get nice and loose. Each stretching session should also incorporate some dynamic stretches like overhead squats, just to make sure you’re putting all the mobility into practice.
If you’re mobile and you’re aware of your body then you’re off to a great start, but you’ll still need to be strong to succeed as a weightlifter.
First up comes leg strength, with a focus on quads. At the elite level triple bodyweight squats aren’t uncommon, and front squats don’t fall that much further behind either. Put simply, if you want to clean 100kg, then you better be able to front squat AT LEAST 100kg (although more reasonably you’d want to front squat 120kg)
Next up comes shoulder strength. If you want to support huge weights above your head then you better get a strong pair of shoulders. If you want to Jerk 100kg then sets of 60-70kg push press definitely need to be happening.
You’ll also need a strong lower back and a strong core in order to transfer force and stabilise movements, not to mention prevent back issues.
Now strength takes time to build, so should pretty much constantly be worked on. I like to start beginner lifters with a basic linear progression using something along the lines of 5x5 or starting strength, whereas early intermediates might be switched onto something like texas method to progress on a more weekly basis. Higher level lifters would be put onto more complex percentage based systems or wave loading.
If you’re strong, mobile and aware of your body then the last piece of the puzzle is explosiveness. Weightlifting doesn’t just require you to move things, it requires you to move things FAST.
Unlike squatting or deadlifting you can’t just grind out a repetition for five seconds. You need to be quick or gravity wins (Yes, gravity is the enemy) and the bar comes crashing down.
The snatch, clean and jerk develop a lot of power and explosiveness in of themselves, but you can also throw in some plyometrics like vertical jumps, broad jumps and box jumps to improve your explosive ‘snap’ of the hips.
Putting it all together
To succeed as a weightlifter you need to have great body awareness, mobility, strength and explosive power.
You can use bodyweight movements, daily stretching, weekly linear progression and plyometrics respectively to accomplish these four goals.
Three out of four characteristics isn’t going to cut it, so if you know you suck at one of them then get on it and sort it out.
And if you want expert guidance to help you work out exactly which areas you need to improve, then all you need to do is drop your contact details in the box on this page. I'll get in touch and we'll see if you're a right fit for coaching.
Keep training hard and I’ll see you all on the platform